Posture, Strength, Flexibility Assessment

Discussion in 'Training' started by Erik, Apr 13, 2008.

  1. Erik

    Erik Admin

    48,420
    912
    113
    Tremendous Resource!


    The Nine Test Postural Assessment and Movement Analysis - An Overview

    - Pencil test: Designed to assess the degree of internal rotation at the shoulder joint. A high score indicates risk for shoulder impingement, or possible rotator cuff tear. Prescription: Depending on the severity of the rotation, the first plan is to stretch the pecs, lats, front delts, and biceps. Second the external rotators and scapular retractors should be strengthened.

    - Pelvic tilt assessment: Designed to asses weather a pelvis is tilted anteriorally or posteriorally, as well as the severity of rotation. Having a pelvis that is tilted one way or the other can be a large obstacle when performing some basic compound lifts. Prescription: An anterior tilt requires hip flexor stretching along with abdominal strengthening. A posterior tilt requires lots of hamstring stretching and strengthening of the spinal erectors.

    - Foot placement assessment: Designed to assess tightness in the (TFL) and (ITB) as well as pick up on weakness in the glutes, by noting the severity of outward rotation of the feet. Prescription: the hip extensors need to be strengthened as well as the abductors. Stretching the (TFL), (ITB), adductors and hip flexors will also help.

    - Overhead Squat (Flexibility Assessment): Designed to assess flexibility around the shoulder, hip, and ankle joints. Prescription: If the client has difficulty they should be shown how to stretch their hip flexors, quads, calves, chest and shoulders. Stretches should be prescribed specifically for the areas of weakness.

    - Trunk Rotation: Designed to diagnose tightness in the oblique muscles. Clients are instructed to sit cross legged in the threshold of a doorway, with their arms crossed at shoulder height. They are then instructed to turn as far as they can to one side and then the other. A score is awarded based on the degrees of rotation achieved. Prescription: Stretching and strengthening of the internal and external oblique muscles.

    - Arched back good morning Test: Designed to measure the functional flexibility of the hamstrings. The client must bend forward from the waist while maintaining lordosis, as well as keeping their knees bent between 5 and 10 degrees of flexion. Prescription: hamstring stretching and strengthening is imperative.

    - Unilateral Squat and Reach (Muscular Strength Assessment): Designed to assess flexibility of the hips and calves, as well as strength imbalances between the medial and lateral aspects of the knee. Moreover, it can also be used to discover if a client relies too much on their quads during squat type movements. Clients are instructed to stand on one foot 12-18 inches from a cone. They are then prompted to squat down and reach forward to touch the top of the cone. Prescription: If the client’s back rounds and their heel lifts off the floor, this indicates tightness about the hips and calves, and some stretching exercises are in order. If the client is able to get down, but the knee shifts medially or laterally, strengthening of the (Add) or (Abd) ductors is in order. If the client’s knee shoots out way past their toes, and the majority of their weight is on the ball of their foot, it indicates they rely too much on their quads, and the posterior chain is in need of strengthening.

    - Incline Bench Press and External Rotation Assessment: Designed to assess the strength of the external rotators, specifically when compared with the strength of the chest. The client is helped to determine their 3rm for the incline press. They are then instructed to perform 8 reps of an external rotation exercise with 9% of their 3rm weight. A score is then handed out for the number of repetitions performed. Prescription: Chest and lat work should be de-emphasized for a period of time, while the focus is shifted to strengthening the muscles that act on the posterior aspect of the shoulder.

    - Unanchored sit-up: Designed to assess the strength of the client’s abdominals, hip flexors, and spinal erectors as a functional unit. The client is instructed to perform a slow paced sit-up, while keeping their hands sliding along the floor. The client should take 5 seconds to go up, pause, and then take 5 more seconds to slowly lower back to the starting position. A score is awarded on the client’s ability to perform the task. Prescription: Strengthening of the abdominals through a large range of motion, as well as strengthening of the (TVA).

    Each assessment is assigned a score of 0-2 and at the end of the assessment, the total score is tallied and the client receives a grade.

    0-5 points = good score, some minor corrective exercises could be worked into the program.

    6-12 points = work needed, the client will likely need a full 4 week corrective phase before starting an intensive training program.

    13 points and up = red alert, this client is at serious risk for injury unless an intensive corrective program is started before they train with an intensive program 4-6 weeks.
     
    • Like Like x 1
  2. donnajo

    donnajo Feeling Strong!

    13,674
    433
    83
    Awesome. Nasm covers a lot of this. I found that cert very helpful in this area. Are you familiar?
     
  3. Erik

    Erik Admin

    48,420
    912
    113
    Postural Assessment

    1. The Pencil Test:
    What is it?
    This test is designed to assess the degree of internal rotation at the shoulder joint. Ideally, your arms should drop down right next to your sides with your palms facing each other. Oftentimes, however, factors such as too much chest and lat work, tight pecs, and poor postural habits can cause the upper arms to rotate inward and pull the shoulders across the front of the body. This indicates an imbalance between the muscles that internally and externally rotate the shoulder. Having weak, overstretched external rotators combined with tight internal rotators increases the likelihood of developing a shoulder impingement, or possibly even a rotator cuff tear.

    Procedure?
    Have the member stand with a pencil in each hand, points facing forward and arms in a natural position at their sides. Take note of the direction in which the pencil points are facing.

    1. Pointed straight ahead = 0 points (go to next test)
    2. Pointed inward diagonally = 1 point
    3. Pointed close to or directly at each other = 2 points

    Treatment?
    If the member’s score was 0 points no treatment is required. For a score of 1 point, the focus should be on stretching the pecs, lats and internal rotators. In addition, do 2 or 3 times as much work on the muscles that externally rotate the shoulder vs. those that internally rotate the shoulder. Exercises to concentrate on are various types of rows (elbows away from the body and emphasizing scapular retraction), reverse flyes, and external rotations.

    If, however, the member’s score was 2, they should immediately stop any and all pec and lat work. Over the next few weeks they should be focusing entirely on stretching the tight and overworked internal rotators and strengthening the weak and overstretched external rotators and scapular retractors.

    2. Pelvic Tilt Test:
    What is it?
    This test is designed to determine the degree of rotation/tilt in the member’s pelvis. A pelvis that is rotated anteriorally is indicative of tight hip flexors and a weakened abdominal wall, whereas a posteriorally rotated pelvis is indicative of tight hamstrings and possibly weakened spinal erectors. Having a pelvis that rotates/tilts one way or the other can be a major inhibiting factor in the member’s ability to use proper body mechanics while training, in addition to reducing the ability to move freely.

    Procedure?
    Have the member stand with their back against the wall and their feet approximately 1 foot out in front of them (measured at the heel). Ensure their rear end, shoulders and head are all in contact with the wall surface. Place your palm against the wall and attempt to slide your hand between the member’s back and the wall just above the waistline. Scoring is based on the size of the gap between the member’s lower back and the wall.

    1. Space for a hand and not much more = 0 points (go to next test)
    2. Space enough for a fist (anterior tilt) = 1 point
    3. Space enough for most of your forearm (anterior tilt) = 2 points
    4. Not enough space for your hand (posterior tilt) = 1 point

    Treatment?
    If the member’s score was 0 no treatment is required. An anterior pelvic tilt is indicative of tight hip flexors and a weakened abdominal wall. The member’s program should include hip flexor stretching and abdominal strengthening. A posterior pelvic tilt is indicative of tight hamstrings and possibly weakened spinal erectors. To resolve this problem the member’s program should include a lot of hamstring stretching and strengthening of the spinal erectors.

    Anterior rotation:
    Stretches – 3-point stretch, Kneeling hip flexor stretch.
    Exercises – Planks, unanchored sit-ups, Russian twists, Lateral bridges.
    Posterior rotation:
    Stretches – Hamstring doorway stretch, Modified hurdlers stretch, Frankenstein walk.
    Exercised – Dead lifts, Unilateral dead lifts. Airplanes, Swiss ball back extensions.

    Note:
    Keep in mind that just as internal rotation of the humerus can vary in severity so too the degree of tilt of the pelvis. Spinal mechanics are far more intricate than that of the shoulder and any anomalies should be referred to a professional.

    3. Foot Placement:
    What Is It?
    This test is designed to assess the degree of rotation at the hip, the more severe the outward rotation of the feet the higher the score given. There are a few problems that could be going on here but it is usually a combination of weak glutes (in particular the glutes maximus) and tightness in the TFL (Tensor Fascia latae) and ITB (iliotibial band) on the outside of the thigh. When too tight, these two tissues work together to inhibit the glutes from preventing internal rotation of the femur (upper thigh). In order to compensate for this internal rotation there is usually an external rotation of the ankle (feet turn outward) to prevent you from falling over. There will also likely be tight adductors and weak abductors. There is a confirmation test in the “Procedure” section below that you can use to verify that this is in fact what is happening.

    Procedure?
    For the initial test, have the member stand in a completely relaxed position and take note of the outward rotation of the feet.

    1. Feet pointing straight ahead = 0 points (go to next test)
    2. Feet rotated outward slightly (11 & 1 o’clock or better) = 1 point
    3. Feet rotated outward severely (beyond 11 & 1 o’clock) = 2 points

    In order to confirm the treatment required, perform this test. If the member tends to stand with their feet rotated outward, have them point them straight ahead and take note of what is happening at the knees. Chances are they’re being pulled inward. Next, have the client contract their glute muscles by clenching their butt cheeks together. Again, take note of what is happening at the knees. Likely, the external rotation of the femur, caused by tightening the glutes, will have caused the knees to point straight forward.

    Treatment?
    If the member’s score was 0, no treatment is required. Otherwise, treatment should involve strengthening of the hip extensors (glutes) and abductors, as well as stretching the ITB, TFL, adductors and hip flexors.

    Flexibility Assessment

    1. Overhead Squat Test:
    What is it?
    This test is designed to assess flexibility around the hip, shoulder and ankle joints.

    Procedure?
    Have the member stand with their feet slightly wider than shoulder width apart with knees slightly bent and holding a broomstick at arm’s length with a snatch grip (approximately twice shoulder width). Feet should be pointed straight ahead or slightly out to the sides. Next, have them raise the bar overhead until their arms are completely straight and the bar is just outside their peripheral vision. Now, squat! They should be able to drop into a full squat (back of thighs touching calves) without allowing their arms to come forward, rounding their back or lifting their heels off the ground. Scoring should be as follows:

    1. Back of thighs touching calves = 0 points (go to next test)
    2. Thighs parallel to the floor = 1 point
    3. Halfway down (450) or less = 2 points

    Treatment?
    Flexibility is the key here. Areas to concentrate on include: hip flexors/quads, calves, chest and shoulders.

    2. Trunk Rotation
    What is it?
    This test is designed to assess a member’s flexibility in the obliques. Restrictions in your ability to rotate your torso indicate tightness in the oblique muscles, specifically in the side you are turning away from. Tightness in these muscles, especially if there is a large disparity from one side to the other, can alter a client’s mechanics in a number of different lifts. This can cause greater stress to be incurred on one side of the body compared to the other, setting the stage for injury or lopsided development.

    Procedure?
    Have the member sit in front of a doorpost with their legs crossed (one knee on either side of the doorway). Next, have them place their hands on opposite shoulders and raise elbows up to shoulder level. Keeping the back straight and shoulder blades pinched together, have them rotate as far to one side as they can and use the clock reference to indicate the position of the lead elbow. Scoring is as follows:

    1. Lead elbow to 9 o’clock (left) or 3 o’clock (right) = 0 points (go to next test)
    2. Lead elbow to 10 o’clock (left) or 2 o’clock (right) = 1 point
    3. Lead elbow to 11 o’clock (left) or 1 o’clock (right) = 2 points

    Treatment?
    Stretching of the Internal and external obliques.
     
  4. Erik

    Erik Admin

    48,420
    912
    113
    3. Arched Back Good Morning
    What is it?
    This test is designed to specifically test the hamstrings for functional flexibility. Lying on the floor and pulling your leg up will only assess static flexibility, which doesn’t always carry over into dynamic movements. Because many of the training exercises we do will involve maintaining a slight lumbar lordosis (arch of the lower back) this test is a better measure of a client’s ability to perform.

    Procedure?
    Have the member place their feet shoulder width apart, holding a broomstick across their trapezius, as though ready to perform a set of squats. Maintaining a slight (5 – 10 degrees) bend in the knee, lift the chest up to create a nice arch in the lower back. Once in this position, all the member has to do is to bend forward at the waist without losing the arch in the lower back or altering the position of their knees (i.e. They should not straighten or bend further, but maintain the 5-10 degrees of flexion they started with). Scoring is as follows:

    1.Torso parallel to the floor without losing lordosis = 0 points (go to next test)
    2. Torso halfway to parallel before losing lordosis = 1 point
    3. Barely starting to move before position is lost = 2 points

    Treatment?
    PNF, static and dynamic stretching of the hamstrings.

    Muscular Strength Assessment

    1. Unilateral Squat and Reach
    What is it?
    This test can actually be used to assess several different things all at once. First of all, you can assess a member’s flexibility around the hips and ankles. It can also uncover potential strength imbalances between the muscles that act on the medial (inside) and lateral (outside) aspects of the knee. Finally, it can also be used to determine if a client relies too heavily on their quads during squatting type movements.

    Procedure?
    Using a cone that is no more than 10 – 12 inches high, place it on the floor approximately 12 – 18 inches in front of the member’s feet (long arms stay closer to 18 inches, short arms stay closer to 12). Have the member stand on one leg with the other leg bent at 90 degrees. Once in the correct position, have the member start to simultaneously squat and bend forward to touch the top of the cone. Be aware of what is happening at the member’s knees and feet. It is okay if they slightly round their back because they are not working with a heavy load; just be sure their abdominal muscles are pulled in tight toward their spine. Scoring is as follows:

    1. Parallel squat with knee/hip/foot alignment, touch cone and stand = 0 points
    2. Parallel squat but knee pinches in, bows out or extends over toes = 1 point
    3. Heel lifts at onset of squat or severe rounding of lower back = 2 points

    Treatment?
    An inability to squat without lifting your heel during this test signals tightness around the hip flexors and calves. So stretching these areas will be recommended for these members. Assuming the member was able to get down to the required depth but had a knee that was wandering to one side, they have some strength imbalances to correct. A knee that bends inward could indicate weakness in the hip abductors or a weak VMO (vastus medialis obliquis), the innermost of the quad muscles right next to the knee. A knee that bows outward however, could indicate weakness in the hip adductors. Either way specific training for these muscle groups established as weak links will greatly improve knee stability. Finally, a knee that shoots forward, well over the toes, on the squat and has the member placing most of their weight on the ball of their foot means they are relying too much on the quadriceps. To correct this problem, specific training of the “posterior chain” (hamstrings, glutes, and spinal erectors) will greatly improve the loads used on exercises such as the squat and deadlift.

    2. Incline Bench Press/External Rotation
    What is it?
    These tests are designed to evaluate potential strength imbalances between the muscles acting on the shoulder joint. The member will first perform a 1RM test for the incline bench press. Once a value has been determined, you will take 9% of it and have the client perform external rotations with this weight. Due to the prevalence of shoulder injuries and seeing how many guys fall prey to shoulder injuries caused by poor muscular imbalance, this is a valuable test. Weak external rotators can place you at risk for a potentially serious shoulder injury. De-emphasizing chest and lat work and taking the time to actively strengthen the muscles that act on the posterior aspect of the shoulder, the member may find upon returning to chest pressing exercises that their weights will actually increase due to improved shoulder stability.

    Procedure?
    Have the member perform 1RM testing for the incline bench press and use the following equation to calculate their 1RM (1RM = weight * (1 + (0.033 * reps)). Now calculate 9% of the 1RM to figure out how much weight to use for the external rotations. Have the member sit sideways on a bench with their right foot up on the bench and the knee bent at 90 degrees. Holding a dumbbell in their right hand, have them place their right elbow on the inside of their right knee. Ensure they are sitting up as straight as possible with the arm rotated downward so the dumbbell is closest to the floor without lifting their elbow off their knee. Using the elbow as a hinge, have them slowly rotate their forearm up until it is perpendicular to the floor and ensure that in doing so they have not extended their wrist backward. Pause at the top position, slowly lower to the start position and repeat. Scoring is as follows:

    1. 8 reps completed = 0 points
    2. Less than 8 reps = 1 point
    3. Less than full range of motion = 2 points

    Treatment?
    Emphasis here should be placed on strengthening the muscles that act on the posterior aspect of the shoulder (i.e. rear delts, rotator cuff, rhomboids, horizontal fibers of the trapezius, etc…). Reduce or eliminate the amount of chest and lat work in the member’s workout until such time as the strength imbalance has been corrected.

    4. Unanchored Situp
    What is it?
    Contrary to popular belief, situps are not bad for you. The issue here is not the exercise, rather it is the way in which people execute them. For example, if a member was to anchor their feet and throw their torsos up and down, chances are they would injure their lower backs. If, however, they do not anchor their feet and use a significantly reduced pace then the focus shifts from their lower backs to their abs, hip flexors and spinal erectors forcing these core muscles to operate as one functional unit as they do in real life. Performing a situp in this manner also forces the member to activate the TVA (transverse abdominis) and works the abs through a much greater range of motion than a crunch.

    Procedure?
    Have the member lie on their backs with knees bent at approximately 90 degrees and their feet flat on the floor. Keeping their arms at their sides, have them begin to roll their torso up towards their thighs, taking a full 5 seconds to reach the top position. Once at the top, have them pause for a second before taking a further 5 seconds to lower themselves back to the start position. The member’s fingers should stay in contact with the floor throughout the exercise in order to prevent them from thrusting their arms forward to create momentum. Their feet also have to remain glued to the floor throughout the exercise. Scoring is as follows:

    1. Full situp as described = 0 points
    2. Feet lifting off the floor slightly = 1 point
    3. Barely getting shoulder blades off the floor = 2 points

    Treatment?
    Abdominal strengthening with particular attention to be paid to the TVA and working the abs through a full range of motion.

    The Final Score
    Once all tests are completed, tally the scores to come up with one number and compare the results to those listed below:

    0 to 5 points: Their body is in pretty good working order. A 2 – 3 week corrective phase with some focused flexibility work will probably have them adequately prepared for the program.

    6 to 12 points: They’ve probably got some work to do. They’ll likely need a full 4-week corrective phase before getting into the more intensive training.

    13 points and up: They’re an accident waiting to happen. Jump right into a full training program without going through a corrective phase and guaranteed they will end up injured. On top of a full 4-week (if not 6-week) corrective phase and intensive flexibility work, they can count on some weak-link strengthening well into their regular program.
     
  5. Erik

    Erik Admin

    48,420
    912
    113
    POSTURAL ASSESSMENTS

    A. Pencil Test (Pec/lat tightness, external rotator weakness)

    1. Stretches – traffic cop, Swiss ball wall rolls, pec stretch, lat stretch, IR broomstick stretch

    2. Exercises – side lying external rotations, cable external rotations, cross body cable external rotations, rear delt flyes, various rows (elbows held out away from the body to emphasize scapular retraction)

    B. Pelvic Tilt Test (pelvic flexibility and core strength)

    1. Anterior tilt
    a. Stretches – Spidermans, pike walks, 3-point stretch
    b. Exercises – unanchored sit-ups, planks, Russian twists

    2. Posterior tilt
    a. Stretches – Frakensteins, pike walks, hamstring doorway stretch, lying hip stretch, hip walks
    b. Exercises – airplanes, Swiss ball back extensions

    C. Foot placement Test (TFL and ITB tightness, Glute strength):

    1. Stretches – TFL & ITB stretch, Lying hip stretch, butterfly, 3-point stretch.

    2. Exercises – Unilateral dead lift, plate drags, low cable abduction.

    FLEXIBILITY ASSESSMENTS

    A. Overhead Squat Test (Shoulder, hip, and ankle flexibility):

    Shoulders:
    1. Stretches – Traffic cop, Swiss ball wall rolls, pectoral stretch, internal rotator broomstick stretch.

    Hips:
    1. Stretches – Quad stretch walk, Spiderman’s, hip walk, pike walks, 3-point stretch, hamstring doorway stretch, lying hip stretch.

    Ankles:
    1. Stretches – Pike walks, pike calf stretch.

    B. Trunk Rotation Test (Oblique tightness):

    1. Stretches – Seated rotational stretch, rotational overhead press, slow wood chop

    2. Exercises – Lateral bridges, Russian twists.

    C. Arched back Good Morning Test (Functional flexibility of the hamstrings):

    1. Stretches – Frankenstein’s, hamstring doorway stretch, modified hurdlers stretch, pike walks.

    MUSCULAR STRENGTH ASSESSMENTS

    A. Unilateral Squat and Reach Test (Hip and calf flexibility/muscular imbalances):

    Hip & Calf tightness: (heel raises off the ground)
    1. Stretches - Quad stretch walk, Spiderman’s, hip walk, pike walks, Swiss ball figure 8’s, 3-point stretch, hamstring doorway stretch, lying hip stretch, pike calf stretch

    Strength Imbalances:
    (Knee falls in or out or shoots out over toes)
    1. Knee bends in: strengthen VMO/abductors - Plate drags & low cable abduction, VMO extensions.

    2. Knee falls out: strengthen adductors - Plate drags & low cable adduction.

    3. Knee shoots forward (Quad dependence): strengthen “posterior chain” – Swiss ball leg curls, cable pull through, unilateral Romanian dead lift, airplanes, Swiss ball back extensions.

    B. Incline Bench & External Rotator Test (External rotator strength):

    1. Exercises – Reverse push-ups, prone rows, cable rows (wide grip, elbows high), reverse flye’s, side lying external rotations, cable external rotations.

    C. Unanchored Sit-up Test (Core strength as a functional unit/TVA activation):

    1. Exercises – Planks, Russian twists, unanchored sit-ups, Swiss ball passes.
     
  6. smuggie

    smuggie Maureen aka Mo

    52,900
    1,153
    113
    This looks great. I'll read it in detail tomorrow. :D
     
  7. Meechel

    Meechel Enjoying the summer!

    15,852
    379
    83
    I know I need tons of help on most of this. Maybe I will print it out for my ART guy to look at and see if we can start working on it.

    Half the technical terms I don't understand but he is pretty good about showing me where parts are and what stretches help.
     
  8. clc315

    clc315 Active Member

    187
    35
    28
    I don't really agree with a few of these recommendations. The good morning is actually a poor indicator of hamstring extensibility. To accurately assess hip mobility the pelvis must be neutral and the lowerback flat. Inability to lift leg up to appx 90 degree could indicate short, stiff hamstrings or weak hip flexors. The good morning is a great exercise but not a good assessment tool for the hamstrings.

    Regarding the situp, repeated flexion at the lumbar spine is not a good thing, whether done slowly, fast, loaded or unloaded. Many of the top researches, doctors and physical therapist would generally agree on this.
     
    • Like Like x 1
  9. Cindy Day

    Cindy Day Well-Known Member

    28,717
    794
    113
    Great post. :thumb:
     
  10. Erik

    Erik Admin

    48,420
    912
    113
    I agree with this - McGill says the same thing.
     
  11. Erik

    Erik Admin

    48,420
    912
    113
    What would be your recommended substitutions?
     
  12. clc315

    clc315 Active Member

    187
    35
    28
    the active lying leg raise is pretty much standard.
     
  13. Erik

    Erik Admin

    48,420
    912
    113
    And for the other?

    ETA: Can you add more info on that? Maybe we can sub it in for the tests that aren't so suitable.
     
  14. Mols

    Mols My BFF

    4,418
    234
    63
    this is great!! is it a sticky?
     
  15. Erik

    Erik Admin

    48,420
    912
    113
    It is now.
     
  16. clc315

    clc315 Active Member

    187
    35
    28
    I assume you meant a sub for the sit-up? I would recommend the front or side plank. If I recall, the ability to hold either or for two minutes is good. The function of the core is to stabilize the spine(lumbar). sit-ups do not address this particular a it focuses more on strength and/or strength endurance of hip flexors(primary mover) and abdominal musculature.


    As for the active lying leg raise, performing that just doesn't tell the whole story. further assessments would be needed to determine if its a stability or mobility issue I.e., weak or short hip flexors , short hamstrings or inability to stabilize the core. A blurry line can appear between screeningand actual assessing which is infringing upon the medical and physical therapy industry.
     
  17. smuggie

    smuggie Maureen aka Mo

    52,900
    1,153
    113
    clc, I love your posts. :D
     
  18. clc315

    clc315 Active Member

    187
    35
    28
    thanks for the kind words. Hoping everyone on this forum can learn from one another and better themselves
     
  19. smuggie

    smuggie Maureen aka Mo

    52,900
    1,153
    113
    That's what I'm here for. :D
     
  20. clc315

    clc315 Active Member

    187
    35
    28
    I also disagree with the notion of external rotating 9% of ones bench for shoulder injury prevention. The rotator cuff has other functions other than just external and internal rotation of the humerus. Probably most important is the stabilization effect that the rotator cuff has on the humeral head. Basically it keeps it from slipping out the glenoid during dynamic activities such as decelerating a throw or pitch. . Core stability, breathing, posture, grip strength, scapular stability, glenohumeral mobility, not stability as was said earlier in the post(incline bench press and external rotation), thoracic spine mobility, and possibly opposite hip mobility via thoracular lumbar fascia all contribute shoulder and rotator cuff health. Specific strength training of the cuff itself is a very small piece of the pie.
     

Share This Page